Commit 89c0e9f1 authored by burcharr's avatar burcharr 💬
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Update docs/thesis/md/introduction.md

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...@@ -12,30 +12,30 @@ Hand washing is an important part of every human's personal hygiene. Washing one ...@@ -12,30 +12,30 @@ Hand washing is an important part of every human's personal hygiene. Washing one
Added to that, hand washing using soap or disinfectants is also part of the work flows of many professionals, e.g. workers in laboratories and hospitals. The quality of hand washing, and thus its effectiveness depends on multiple factors, like the thoroughness, length of the washing process and whether all parts of the hands were covered during the process @noauthor_guideline_nodate. Added to that, hand washing using soap or disinfectants is also part of the work flows of many professionals, e.g. workers in laboratories and hospitals. The quality of hand washing, and thus its effectiveness depends on multiple factors, like the thoroughness, length of the washing process and whether all parts of the hands were covered during the process @noauthor_guideline_nodate.
In order to monitor the effectiveness and frequency of hand washing, we could use a sensor based computer system to detect the activity of hand washing and its duration. Further advanced systems could also be used to predict the quality of the hand washing. These systems could then be used to reduce the risk of contaminations or infections by ameliorating the hygiene of their users. In order to monitor the effectiveness and frequency of hand washing, we could use a sensor-based computer system to detect the activity of hand washing and its duration. Further advanced systems could also be used to predict the quality of the hand washing. These systems could then be used to reduce the risk of contaminations or infections by ameliorating the hygiene of their users.
### Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders ### Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
While it is usually really helpful and a basic part of hygiene, hand washing can also be overdone, i.e. be too frequent or be done too thoroughly. One example of persons for which overly excessive hand washing is a problem, is the small percentage of humans suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (OCD). OCD affects about $1-3\,\%$ of humans during their life @valleni-basile_frequency_1994, @fawcett_women_2020. OCD appears in the form of obsessions, that lead to compulsive behavior. There are multiple subgroups of obsessions and compulsions, including contamination concerns, symmetry and precision concerns, saving concerns and more @stein_obsessive-compulsive_2002. These concerns lead to respective compulsive behavior: Symmetry and precision concerns lead to arranging and ordering, saving concerns lead to hoarding and contamination concerns can lead to excessive washing, bathing and showering, including compulsive hand washing. This work will focus on detecting hand washing and also try to tell apart hand washing from compulsive hand washing of OCD patients. While it is usually helpful and a basic part of hygiene, hand washing can also be overdone, i.e. be too frequent or be done too thoroughly. One example of persons for which overly excessive hand washing is a problem, is the small percentage of humans suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (OCD). OCD affects about $1-3\,\%$ of humans during their life @valleni-basile_frequency_1994, @fawcett_women_2020. OCD appears in the form of obsessions, that lead to compulsive behavior. There are multiple subgroups of obsessions and compulsions, including contamination concerns, symmetry and precision concerns, saving concerns and more @stein_obsessive-compulsive_2002. These concerns lead to respective compulsive behavior: Symmetry and precision concerns lead to arranging and ordering, saving concerns lead to hoarding and contamination concerns can lead to excessive washing, bathing and showering, including compulsive hand washing. This work will focus on detecting hand washing and will also try to tell apart hand washing from compulsive hand washing of OCD patients.
One method of treatment for clinical cases of OCD is exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy @meyer_modification_1966 @whittal_treatment_2005. Using this method, patients that suffer from OCD are exposed to situations in which their obsessions are stimulated and they are helped at preventing compulsive reactions to the stimulation. The patients can then "get used" to the situation in a sense, and thus the reaction to the stimulation will be weakened over time. This means that their quality of life is improved, as the severity of their OCD declines. One method of treatment for clinical cases of OCD is exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy @meyer_modification_1966 @whittal_treatment_2005. Using this method, patients that suffer from OCD are exposed to situations in which their obsessions are stimulated and they are helped at preventing compulsive reactions to the stimulation. The patients can then "get used" to the situation in a sense, and thus the reaction to the stimulation will be weakened over time. This means that their quality of life is improved, as the severity of their OCD declines.
A successful, i.e. reliable and accurate system for compulsive hand washing detection could be used to intervene, whenever the compulsive hand washing is detected. It could therefore help psychologists and their patients in the treatment of the symptoms. It could help the user to stop the compulsive behavior by issuing a warning. Such a warning could be a vibration of the device, or a sound that is played upon the detection of compulsive behavior. However, the hypothesis of usefulness is yet to be tested, as no such systems exists as of now. Therefore we want to develop a system that can not only detect hand washing with low latency and in real time, but also discriminate between usual hand washing and obsessive-compulsive hand washing at the same time. The system could then, as described, be used in ERP therapy sessions, but also in every day life, to prevent compulsive hand washing. A successful, i.e. reliable and accurate system for compulsive hand washing detection could be used to intervene, whenever the compulsive hand washing is detected. It could therefore help psychologists and their patients in the treatment of the symptoms. It could help the user to stop the compulsive behavior by issuing a warning. Such a warning could be a vibration of the device, or a sound that is played upon the detection of compulsive behavior. However, the hypothesis of usefulness is yet to be tested, as no such systems exists as of now. Therefore we want to develop a system that can not only detect hand washing with low latency and in real time, but also discriminate between usual hand washing and obsessive-compulsive hand washing at the same time. The system could then, as described, be used in ERP therapy sessions, but also in everyday life, to prevent compulsive hand washing.
The separation of compulsive hand washing from ordinary hand washing is an even harder problem than just hand washing detection itself. It is unclear, whether it is possible to predict the type of hand washing with high probability, as there is no previous work in this area. It is reasonable to assume, that there are strong similarities between compulsive hand washing and non-compulsive hand washing, as well as subtle differences, e.g. in intensity and duration of the washing. The separation of compulsive hand washing from ordinary hand washing is an even harder problem than just hand washing detection itself. It is unclear, whether it is possible to predict the type of hand washing with high probability, as there is no previous work in this area. It is reasonable to assume, that there are strong similarities between compulsive hand washing and non-compulsive hand washing, as well as subtle differences, e.g. in intensity and duration of the washing.
### Wrist worn sensors ### Wrist worn sensors
Different types of sensors can be used to detect activities such as hand washing. It is possible to detect hand washing from RGB camera data to some extent. However, in order for this to work, we would need to place a camera at every place and room a subject could want to wash their hands at. This is unfeasible for most applications of hand washing detection, and could be very expensive. Furthermore, it might be problematic to place cameras inside wash or bath rooms for privacy reasons. Thus, a better alternative could be body worn, camera-less devices. Different types of sensors can be used to detect activities such as hand washing. It is possible to detect hand washing from RGB camera data to some extent. However, for this to work, we would need to place a camera at every place and room a subject could want to wash their hands at. This is unfeasible for most applications of hand washing detection and could be very expensive. Furthermore, it might be problematic to place cameras inside wash- or bathrooms for privacy reasons. Thus, a better alternative could be body worn, camera-less devices.
Inertial measurement units (IMUs) can measure different types of time series movement data, e.g. the acceleration or angular velocity of the device they are embedded in. IMUs are embedded in most modern smart phones and smart watches, which makes them easily available. For hand washing detection, especially the movement of the hands and wrists can contain information that can help us classify hand washing. Therefore, we can use a smart watch and its embedded IMU to try to predict whether a user is washing their hands or not. Added to that, if the user is washing their hands, we could try to predict if they are washing them in an obsessive-compulsive way or not. Another advantage of using a smart watch would be, that they usually have in-built vibration motors or even speakers. These means could be used to intervene, whenever compulsive hand washing is detected, as described above. Therefore, wrist worn sensors, especially those embedded in smart watch systems, are used in this work. The wrist worn devices can also be used to execute machine learning models in real time, using publicly available libraries, e.g. on smart watches running Wear OS. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) can measure different types of time series movement data, e.g. the acceleration or angular velocity of the device they are embedded in. IMUs are embedded in most modern smart phones and smart watches, which makes them easily available. For hand washing detection, especially the movement of the hands and wrists can contain information that can help us classify hand washing. Therefore, we can use a smart watch and its embedded IMU to try to predict whether a user is washing their hands or not. Added to that, if the user is washing their hands, we could try to predict if they are washing them in an obsessive-compulsive way or not. Another advantage of using a smart watch would be, that they usually have in-built vibration motors or even speakers. These means could be used to intervene, whenever compulsive hand washing is detected, as described above. Therefore, wrist worn sensors, especially those embedded in smart watch systems, are used in this work. The wrist worn devices can also be used to execute machine learning models in real time, using publicly available libraries, e.g. on smart watches running Wear OS.
## Goals ## Goals
In this work, we want to develop several neural network based machine learning methods for the real time detection of hand washing and compulsive hand washing on inertial sensor data of wrist worn devices. We also want to test the methods and report meaningful statistics for their performance. Further, we want to test parts of the developed methods in a real world scenario. We then want to draw conclusions on the applicability of the developed systems in the real world. In this work, we want to develop several neural network based machine learning methods for the real time detection of hand washing and compulsive hand washing on inertial sensor data of wrist worn devices. We also want to test the methods and report meaningful statistics for their performance. Further, we want to test parts of the developed methods in a real-world scenario. We then want to draw conclusions on the applicability of the developed systems in the real-world.
### Detection of hand washing in real time utilizing inertial measurement sensors ### Detection of hand washing in real time utilizing inertial measurement sensors
We want to show that neural network based classification methods can be applied to the recognition of hand washing. We want to base our method on sensor data from inertial measurement sensors in smart watches or other wrist worn IMU-equipped devices. We want to detect the hand washing in real time and directly on the mobile, i.e. on a wrist wearable device, such as a smart watch. Doing so, we would be able to give instant real time feedback to the user of the device. We want to show that neural network based classification methods can be applied to the recognition of hand washing. We want to base our method on sensor data from inertial measurement sensors in smart watches or other wrist worn IMU-equipped devices. We want to detect the hand washing in real time and directly on the mobile, i.e. on a wrist wearable device, such as a smart watch. Doing so, we would be able to give instant real time feedback to the user of the device.
### Separation of hand washing and compulsive hand washing ### Separation of hand washing and compulsive hand washing
On top of the detection of hand washing, the detection of obsessive-compulsive hand washing is part of our goals. We want to be able to separate compulsive hand washing from non compulsive hand washing, based on inertial motion data. Especially for the scenario of possible interventions used for the treatment of OCD, this separation is crucial, as OCD patients do also wash their hands in non compulsive ways and we do not want to intervene for these kinds of hand washing procedures. On top of the detection of hand washing, the detection of obsessive-compulsive hand washing is part of our goals. We want to be able to separate compulsive hand washing from non-compulsive hand washing, based on inertial motion data. Especially for the scenario of possible interventions used for the treatment of OCD, this separation is crucial, as OCD patients do also wash their hands in non-compulsive ways and we do not want to intervene for these kinds of hand washing procedures.
### Real world evaluation ### Real-world evaluation
We want to evaluate the most promising of the developed models in a real world evaluation, in order to obtain a realistic estimate of its applicability in the task of hand washing detection. We want to report results of an evaluation with multiple subjects to obtain a meaningful performance estimation. From this estimation we want to draw conclusions on the applicability of the developed system in real world therapy scenarios. Added to that, we want to derive future improvements, that could be applied to the system. We want to evaluate the most promising of the developed models in a real-world evaluation, in order to obtain a realistic estimate of its applicability in the task of hand washing detection. We want to report results of an evaluation with multiple subjects to obtain a meaningful performance estimation. From this estimation we want to draw conclusions on the applicability of the developed system in real world therapy scenarios. Added to that, we want to derive future improvements, that could be applied to the system.
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